For beginners in the world of programming, the biggest dilemma is to decide where to begin or which language one should master for career benefits. At times, professional coders also face a situation where learning a new language seems more fruitful.

Whatever may be the reason, here is a list of the most popular programming languages across the world to know which languages are ruling the charts. This list of top programming languages is based on the data sourced from TIOBE Programming Community Index, which is a popular indicator of the popularity of programming languages.

TIOBE calculates the ratings by analyzing data from Google, Yahoo!, Bing, Wikipedia, Amazon, Baidu, and YouTube. Variables like the number of professional developers worldwide, training courses, and third-party vendors have also factored in this list.

November 2019 headline:

The TIOBE Programming Community index is updated every month and the results for November 2019 are here.

C is getting close to Java

Compared to the last update, C is getting really close to Java now with a difference of just 0.2%. There are chances that C programming language might just become the most popular language by the end of the year.

Swift enters top 10

There are some interesting changes in the top 10th position and one of them is Swift. Two months ago, SQL took over, followed by Objective-C and now its Swift that has occupied the 10th slot. This shift is by far the greatest on the list of most popular programming languages as Swift made a jump from 18th to 10th position and we can expect Swift to retain its position for quite a few months.

Rust scores an all-time high

Another noteworthy development was observed in Rust which has scored an all-time high by jumping from position 34 to 25 in one month. If Rust continues to grow at the same rate, it might become a member of the top 20. And there are strong reasons behind it too.

Rust is a completely memory-safe language, which is why even Microsoft has started rewriting low-level code components of Windows 10 in Rust. Moreover, the company is also creating a Rust-based programming language to develop more secure codes for its software.

Top 10 Programming Languages In 2019

The following list contains the top 20 programming languages and their performance in comparison to last year’s ratings. After that, the top 10 languages have been individually described in brief:

Nov 2019Nov 2018ChangeProgramming LanguageRatingsChange
11Java16.24%-0.50%
22C16.03%+1.64%
34Python9.84%+2.16%
43C++5.60%-2.68%
56C#4.31%+0.36%
65Visual Basic .NET4.22%-2.26%
77JavaScript1.92%-0.73%
88PHP1.72%-0.66%
99SQL1.69%-0.15%
1012Swift1.65%+0.20%
1116↑↑Ruby1.26%+0.17%
1211Objective-C1.19%-0.28%
1313Delphi/Object Pascal1.14%-0.28%
1425↑↑Groovy1.09%+0.50%
1515Assembly language1.02%-0.09%
1614R0.98%-0.43%
1720Visual Basic0.95%+0.10%
1823↑↑D0.92%+0.25%
1917Matlab0.89%-0.14%
2010↓↓Go0.85%-0.64%

Now let’s talk about the ones that have managed to secure top 10 positions in this list:

1. Java – the undisputed winner

Java still continues to top the most popular programming languages charts since the past several years. According to TIOBE’s data, Java has secured the first and second positions more than any other languages for about a couple of decades. A large number of renowned companies use Java to develop software and applications so if you happen to know Java, you definitely won’t have to struggle to find a job. The major reasons behind the popularity of Java are its portability, scalability and a large community of users.

Career Opportunity: Web developer, Application developer, EJB programmer, Software Developer, Tester, etc.

Learn Java from Scratch

2. The good old C programming language

As one of the oldest programming languages, C still stands as one of the top programming languages, thanks to its portability feature and early adoption by tech giants including Microsoft, Oracle, and Apple. It can work with nearly every system and is highly suitable for operating systems and embedded systems. Since it has a relatively small runtime, C makes the perfect choice for keeping such systems lean. Highly recommended for beginners, C is essentially the universal language of programming languages and has given birth to spinoffs like C++ and C# which are also quite popular.

Career Opportunity:  Software Developer, Application Developer, Tester

C programming for beginners

3. Python – on the rise

The last 15 years have seen steady growth in the popularity of Python. This year too, Python has seen a significant rise in the index and deemed as one of the most popular programming languages. It has been able to secure a spot in the top 5 of the TIOBE index for the past couple of years. As the major language behind some of the most promising technologies, today such as AI, machine learning, Big Data and robotics, Python has amassed a huge fanbase in recent years. You will be surprised by learning how easy it is to learn Python and this is the reason why many seasoned developers opt Python as their second or third language.

Career Opportunity: Software Engineer, Software Developer,  Web Developer, Quality Assurance Engineer, Data Science

Python 3 Bootcamp

4. C++ continues to dominate

This object-oriented programming language was developed in the 1980s and is still found in numerous systems from desktop web apps to server infrastructure. C++ still remains in demand owing to its flexibility, performance and multiple contexts where you can use it. A career in C++ would usually involve the development of desktop applications which are focused on performance-intensive tasks. Mastery of C++ can give a deeper understanding of how programming languages and help in acquiring low-level memory manipulation skills.

Career Opportunity: Operating Systems and Compilers, Database engines, Gaming industry, Financial platforms,
Embedded systems

C++ for absolute beginners

5. C# – Game developers’ favorite

C# is a modern object-oriented programming language that was developed by Microsoft to rival Java, which was heavily used by business software developers at that time. It was designed for developing apps on the Microsoft platform and needs the .NET framework on Windows to work. You can use C# to develop almost anything but it’s particularly strong in case of Windows desktop applications and games development. After seeing a constant decline in its popularity in the past two years, C# finally seems to gain traction as it has shifted one position upwards this year, pushing away Visual Basic .NET

Career opportunity: Game Developer, Application Engineer

The Complete C# Foundation

6. Visual Basic .NET

Even though Visual Basic .NET continues to hold the sixth position as last year in the most popular programming languages list for 2019, there is an overall decline in the ratings of the language. It is one of Microsoft’s OOP languages which combines the power of .NET Framework-based classes and run-time environment. Derived from VB6, it is well known for the development of GUI applications making tasks easier for programmers and improving productivity. For coders, VB .NET offers a fast and easy way to create desktop applications for the Windows platform as well as web-services and web development.

Career Opportunity: Senior Engineer, Software Developer, DevOps Engineer, QA Automation Engineer

Guide to VB.NET

7. JavaScript is an essential

JavaScript has not only managed to secure the seventh position on the list for the third time among the top programming languages, but it has also gained positive change in its ratings. All software developers these days use JavaScript in some way or the other. Used along with HTML and CSS, it is essential for front-end web development that creates interactive web pages and displays content dynamically to users. Over 90% of the websites use this language and it is one of the friendliest programming languages for learners, to begin with. So, there will be no shortage of opportunities if you master JavaScript. However, you will need to learn other supporting languages and frameworks to pursue a career as a front-end developer for desktop, mobile app or game development.

Career Opportunity: Web Developer, Software Developer, App Developer, UI/UX Engineer

JavaScript: Complete Guide

8. PHP for Web Development

According to TIOBE, PHP has been displaced by JavaScript and shifted down to number eight in TIOBE’s most popular programming languages in 2019. PHP is mostly used on the server-side for web development accounting for about 80% percent of websites on the internet. Facebook began its journey with PHP and its role in the WordPress content management system makes it quite popular. PHP offers several frameworks like Laravel and Drupal to help developers build applications faster with more scalability and robustness. So if you are looking for a career in web development, PHP is not a bad choice, to begin with.

Career Opportunity: Web Developer, App Developer

Advanced PHP programming

9. SQL to manage database

SQL has risen to the ninth slot once again. The popular query language was rapidly progressing in number in the top 20 programming languages of the TIOBE index for quite some time. However, the ratings for SQL show a slump this month. It is worth noting that despite the presence of other database technology, this standard query language for managing databases has been reigning for the past four decades. The reason being its simplicity, reliability, ubiquity and an active community that does a lot to keep this open-source language around. SQL is typically easier for beginners to learn compared to other languages and as far as a career path is concerned, several well-paying jobs like Data Analyst require SQL as a must.

Career Opportunity: Database Administrator, Database Developer, Database Tester, Data Scientist, App Developer, Web Developer

Fundamental SQL Programming

10. Swift

In 2010, Apple started developing a new programming language called Swift that can rival Objective-C in a few areas — specifically where type safety, security, and better on-hardware performance is concerned. Swift is supposedly more than 2.6x faster than Objective-C and more than 8.4x faster than Python. And the first version of Swift was released in September 2014. Ever since then, Swift has continued to grow gradually and with the release of Swift 5.0, the language continues to be embraced by several iOS and macOS developers. Now, Swift is Apple’s official language and anyone seeking a career as iOS/macOS developer should learn Swift.

Career Opportunity: iOS, OS X, watchOS, and tvOS app developer.

Learn Swift Programming Step by Step

It’s time to code

So this concludes the list of the most popular programming languages you should learn in 2019. I hope the programming languages rating in this article helps you choose the right language career path based on your interests and the type of software development you would like to indulge in. Since each language has its pros and cons,  take your time in weighing each option and choose accordingly. More importantly, make sure you hold a good command over the language you choose for programming. Until then, enjoy coding!

Also Read: Best Programming, Scripting, and Markup Languages To Learn